Education, training, and development of a child are defined by external conditions in school and within a family. Main forms of social life creation in school are lessons and subject practical activities. They are aimed at transferring knowledge, abilities, and skills to a child from a teacher. An important aspect of school activity belongs to classroom management. It is usually supposed to promote enrichment of physical and emotional well-being of a child, formation of independence, capability to joint coordination activities, and inquisitiveness of a child.
According to experts in education, both school and classroom management focus at encouragement and establishment of pupils self-control by stimulating positive achievements and behavior. Thus, educational achievements, efficiency of teaching, and behavior of both teachers and pupils are directly connected with the topic of effective school and classroom management.
Classroom management is focused on three main components: content, behavior, and team organization. These components are defined and presented in details along with the list of characteristic elements of effective teaching practices.
Organization of content includes management of space, material, and equipment, movement of people and sequence of lessons which are a part of a training program. Further, organization of behavior is combined from procedures necessary to resolve problems connected with discipline in a class. Finally, team organization focuses attention on interpersonal interaction skills of a leading teacher in relation to pupils.
In their research, Iverson and Froyen (1999) demonstrate that problems with discipline in a class negatively influence the efficiency of instruction and training. In this regard, it was proved that teachers, facing a problem of discipline, do not have any opportunity to plan adequately and carry out educational tasks. Such teachers tend to not diversify plans of lessons and to not encourage pupils to discuss and assess studied material. In contrast, strong and consecutive skills of classroom management lead to reduction of discipline issues.
Iverson and Froyen (1999) point out the importance of help in the development of positive behavior. When planning management by a class, teachers have to consider using positive style of communication and behavior. Moreover, teachers should involve pupils into corresponding educational tasks within general school rules and norms. Furthermore, Iverson and Froyen (1999) state that classroom behavior management is an essential part of creating a basis for organized approach directed at competent teaching and training. It, in turn, results in granting of independence and self-control to pupils by means of effective communication.
Classroom management emphasizes the importance of consideration of a class group as a social system. Behaviors and expectations of a teacher and pupils create the learning environment in a class. Namely, the culture of each separately taken school is special. Nevertheless, it is a subject to the direct influence of more global society whose purposes of education should be realized. Strong relations between schools and public needs have to be reconsidered and constantly adjusted according to social dynamics.
According to Gettinger, Elliott, and Kratochwill (1992), effective teaching methods facilitate both individual expression and social development. Actions mentioned below illustrate this notion:
Following the children’s lead, teachers comment on their activities, similar to the behavioral strategy of attending. When new materials or activities are introduced, they are presented as options, ones in which the children have a choice to participate. Cooperation and getting along with others are facilitated through guided reasoning and modeling. Generally, teachers fulfill a supportive, nurturing role, providing an emotionally safe environment, one in which children feel secure and competent enough to explore and learn through playing (Gettinger et al. 1992, pp.12-13).